Piracy and armed robbery at sea
In October 1999, the cargo ship Alondra Rainbow left the Indonesian port of Kuala Tanjung bound for the port of Mike in Japan. It never arrived. Instead, the ship was boarded by armed pirates who put the 17 crew members in an inflatable liferaft and set them adrift. Although they were passed by six ships, it was not until eleven days later that they were finally rescued by fishermen.
In September 1998, the Panama-registered Tenyu also disappeared in the Straits of Malacca while en route from Indonesia for the Republic of Korea with a cargo of aluminium ingots. It later reappeared, but with a different name and crew. It is almost certain that the original crew of 17 were murdered.
In November 1998, the bulk carrier MV Cheung Son was attacked by pirates in the South China Sea. Its crew of 23 were shot and their bodies thrown overboard, weighted down to make them sink. Not all did so. Fishermen off the coast of China later found six bodies in their nets, still bound and gagged.
These attacks would be shocking if they were isolated cases. But according to reports compiled by IMO, between 1984 and the end of November 1999, there had been 1,587 attacks by pirates on ships around the world. In some areas these attacks involved a disturbing increase in violence. IMO estimates that incidents of piracy and armed robbery against ships are under-reported by a factor of two. Several reasons have been suggested, including fear that a successful act of piracy will reflect on the master's competence; concern that such a report would embarrass the State in whose territorial waters the act occurred (the coastal State); the belief that an investigation would disrupt the vessel's schedule; and the possibility that shipowners' insurance would increase. The IMO figures show that, between June and November 1999 one security guard was killed, one crew member went missing, thirteen crew members were assaulted and thirteen others were taken hostage, while two ships were hijacked or destroyed. The yearly statistics of incidents since 1984 and on a monthly basis for 2001 are shown below.
To most people, the surprising thing is not that piracy can be violent, but that it is happening at all. Although piracy has existed almost as long as shipping and trade, it seemed by the end of the 19th century that it had at last been eliminated. In more recent times, it was regarded as an interesting historical problem associated with the skull and crossbones flag, galleons of gold and villains carrying cutlasses: wicked, but with a dash of excitement and even romance. The fact that piracy was always a crime, often vicious and usually murderous, was forgotten or ignored.
In fact piracy had not disappeared. During the 1970s and 1980s, attacks on merchant ships began to increase. They were often small in scale and rarely involved physical injury to those who were attacked but it was a problem that soon could no longer be ignored.
What is piracy?
The following definition of piracy is contained in article 101 of the 1982 United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea (UNCLOS):
Piracy consists of any of the following acts:
(a) any illegal acts of violence or detention, or any act of depredation, committed for private ends by the crew or the passengers of a private ship or a private aircraft, and directed: (i) on the high seas, against another ship or aircraft, or against persons or property on board such ship or aircraft;
(ii) against a ship, aircraft, persons or property in a place outside the jurisdiction of any State; (b) any act of voluntary participation in the operation of a ship or of an aircraft with knowledge of facts making it a pirate ship or aircraft; and
(c) any act inciting or of intentionally facilitating an act described in sub-paragraph (a) or (b).
It is clear that many acts of violence against ships, especially those that occur in ports or territorial waters are not regarded as "piracy" under international law. They are therefore classified as "armed robbery".
Piracy becomes a problem
In 1983, Sweden submitted a paper to the Maritime Safety Committee (MSC), IMO's most senior technical body, which stated that piratical attacks had grown to such an extent that the situation had become "alarming". Most attacks at that time were taking place at night on ships anchored off the coast of West Africa, usually waiting for a berth in port. The International Maritime Bureau, which had been established by the International Chamber of Commerce in 1979, mainly to deal with maritime fraud, said that similar attacks had been recorded as far back as 1970. Thereafter, the MSC prepared a draft text, which was used as the basis for a resolution adopted by the IMO Assembly in November 1983 (resolution A.545 (13)).
The 1983 resolution noted with great concern the increasing number of incidents involving piracy and armed robbery and recognizes the grave danger to life and the grave navigational and environmental risks to which such incidents can give rise. It then 'urges Governments concerned to take, as a matter of highest priority, all measures necessary to prevent and suppress acts of piracy and armed robbery from ships in or adjacent to their waters, including strengthening of security measures.'
The resolution 'invites Governments concerned and interested organizations to advise shipowners, ship operators, shipmasters and crews on measures to be taken to prevent acts of piracy and armed robbery and minimise the effects of such acts.' It further invites Governments and organizations concerned to inform IMO of action taken to implement the aims of the resolution and recommends Governments concerned to inform IMO of any act of piracy or armed robbery committed against a ship flying the flag of their country, indicating the location and circumstances of the incident.
Finally, it requests the IMO Council to keep the matter under review and take such further action as it may consider necessary in the light of developments.
In April 1984, the MSC established "Piracy and armed robbery against ships" as a separate and fixed item in its work programme. The Committee decided that as a first step it would be necessary to have an indication of the scale of the problem, the areas in which attacks were prevalent and as much other information as possible. Under this agenda item, the Committee receives a summary of all reports on piracy and armed robbery against ships submitted by Member Governments and international organizations in consultative status.
The reports contained the names and descriptions of the ships attacked, their positions and times of attack, consequences to the crew, ship or cargo and actions taken by the crew and coastal States to which the incidents were reported. The reports were compiled at first twice a year, then quarterly and now they are circulated monthly, with quarterly and annual summaries. In 1986, the MSC decided that reports on piracy and armed robbery against ships received by the Secretariat, should be forwarded to the port or coastal States concerned, for comments and advice on the actions they had taken with regard to the incidents reported and that any relevant information provided by the coastal States should be reported to its future sessions.
In view of the continuing rise in the number of such unlawful acts reported and realizing that many others were not brought to the attention of the Organization, the IMO Assembly in 1991 adopted resolution A.683 (17) - Prevention and suppression of acts of piracy and armed robbery against ships, which urged Member Governments to report to the Organization all incidents of piracy and armed robbery against ships under their flags and invited coastal States to increase their efforts to prevent and suppress such acts committed in their waters.
A global threat
Piracy became a major international problem two decades ago and has occurred in a number of areas.
Between 1982 and 1986, West Africa - particularly Nigeria - had the highest reported number of cases of piracy and armed robbery. About 25 cases were reported annually, mainly against ships at anchor awaiting berth. Typically, a gang of up 10 people would board the ship at night, threatened the crew with knives, overpowered them and then go on to break into cargo containers and stole their contents.
Between 1984 and 1985, the Nigerian authorities, using the combined resources of the navy, police and customs, collected enough intelligence to swoop on piracy bases and the outlets, which were used for disposing of the stolen goods. The result was dramatic because by 1986, only occasional isolated incidents were reported from Lagos and Bonny ports, which had been the hot spots for such attacks. However, in 1998, 22 incidents were reported in West Africa. In 2001, 58 incidents piracy and armed robbery occurred in West Africa.
Prior to 1989, the Malacca Strait was considered to be relatively safe with about seven cases of piracy and armed robbery, were reported annually from the area. However, the figure rose to 28 in 1989 and by 1991, it had gone up to about 50 incidents.
The Malacca Strait gave particular cause for concern because it is one of the busiest waterways in the world, being used by up to 200 ships daily. The Strait, in some stretches, is shallow and narrow and requires precise navigation. The pattern used by the pirates was to board a steaming ship at night, undetected and make their way to the ship's bridge. Once there, they would overpower the officer of the navigational watch and either tie him up or hand cuff him to the rail while the rest of the gang made for the master's and crew cabins to demand money and valuables. Apart from the danger to the crew of the ship under attack, there was the horrifying hazard posed by a ship often carrying dangerous cargoes, steaming at full speed, unattended, in confined waters.
In 1992, a Working Group composed of experts from ten IMO Member countries, including experts from the three littoral States of the Malacca Strait (Indonesia, Malaysia and Singapore), was established to prepare a report outlining the problem in the Strait of Malacca. The Working Group visited Indonesia, Malaysia and Singapore between February and March 1993, and prepared a report covering navigation, radiocommunications, search and rescue and piracy and armed robbery in the Malacca Strait region.
The report was considered by the MSC at its sixty-second session in May 1993 and two circulars were issued as a result. The first one (MSC/Circ. 622) contained Recommendations to Governments for preventing and suppressing piracy and armed robbery against ships. The second (MSC/Circ. 623) was on Guidance to shipowners and ship operators, shipmasters and crews on preventing and suppressing acts of piracy and armed robbery against ships. Later that year, the IMO Assembly adopted a new resolution A.738 (18) recommending additional measures to prevent and suppress piracy and armed robbery against ships.
The new resolution:
recommended that masters of ships immediately report attacks or threats of attack to the nearest rescue and co-ordination centre and request such co-ordination centres to immediately warn shipping in the immediate vicinity of the attack, as well as inform promptly the local security forces to implement any contingency plans they have for dealing with such incidents;
requested the Maritime Safety Committee to adopt a special signal for use by ships under attack or threat of attack. IMO, working in collaboration with the International Telecommunication Union (ITU) and the International Mobile Satellite Organization (Inmarsat) has included "Piracy/armed robbery attack" as a category of distress message, which ships can now transmit through either their DSC (Digital Selective Calling) or Inmarsat equipment by pressing a button. The message can be received automatically by shore stations and ships in the vicinity. an invitation and recommendation to shipmasters to use such facilities was circulated to Member Governments by MSC/Circ.805 of 6 June 1997. But masters of ships under attack or threat of attack are warned about using the facility if they have been ordered by the pirates to maintain radio silence. This is because there is equipment available capable of detecting all radio signals, including satellite communications, to which the pirates may have access.
Prior to the establishment of the Working Group, the three littoral States of the Malacca Strait (Indonesia, Malaysia and Singapore), in response to the concerns expressed by IMO, had started implementing a co-ordinated patrol and other counter-measures in the region. These measures, which started in 1992, resulted in a marked decline in the number attacks in the region. In 1998 six incidents were reported in the Malacca Strait but in 2001, 58 incidents occurred
South China Sea
Statistics compiled over the 7-month period from May to December 1993 for South China Sea showed that 42 incidents were reported in the East and South China Sea out of 67 worldwide. Most of the attacks took place in international waters and in some cases firearms were used.
A number of reports described persons attempting to stop and board the ships in the guise of officials or wearing uniforms. It was not possible to confirm whether those involved were officials acting within their jurisdiction, officials acting outside their normal duties or private individuals dressed as officials. In the majority of the cases, such persons were armed with weapons such as pistols and assault rifles.
Fishing vessels, particularly around the Philippines, also received the attention of pirates and armed robbers. Very often, they were waylaid by faster boats that came alongside them while streaming. The attacking boat would synchronise its speed with that of its target and the armed bandits would simply climb over the gunwale of the ship under attack, leaving some gang members in their boats as guards. The bandits operated swiftly and accurately, taking the fish catch, boat engines, fuel, personal effects, or worse, the boat itself.
Effective law enforcement is difficult in the area of the South China Sea because of its vastness (more than 200 miles wide) and the fact that it is dotted with several uninhabited islands to which the pirates can retreat. The problem has been exacerbated by the lack of co-operation, particularly exchange of information, between the law enforcement agencies of the neighbouring countries and some disputes over territorial limits. Of the 210 cases of piracy and armed robbery reported worldwide in 1998, incidents in the South China Sea accounted for 98 and in 2001, 116 incidents were reported.
Attacks have been reported in various ports in South America including Colombia, Venezuela, the Guianas and the Caribbean. A total of 38 attacks were reported in 1998. In 2001, 23 cases were reported. Attacks usually occur in ports or anchorages and occasionally, extreme violence has been reported.
Despite the efforts of IMO and its Member States, piracy has remained a major threat to shipping in several parts of the world. In October 1998, therefore, experts were sent to South East Asia and Central and South America to discuss the situation and consider counter-measures.
The South East Asia group visited Manila (Philippines), Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia) and Jakarta (Indonesia). The mission was undertaken against some disturbing statistics showing that, over the period from 1995 to the present, 244 incidents took place in the South China Sea and Malacca Strait areas out of 715 worldwide. Of the incidents reported in the two areas:
86.5% had taken place in territorial waters or within ports 56% concerned ships at anchor or at berth; in 23% of the reported incidents, violence had been used and in 16% violence had been threatened.
The principal purpose of the mission was to increase awareness of the problem; impress upon the Governmental representatives concerned the need for action; and, more importantly, motivate political will to act at national and regional levels. The mission was followed up by a seminar held in Singapore in February 1999. High-level Governmental representatives of the countries visited participated in the meetings, which were characterized by an open and frank exchange of views and clear expressions of political will to act at national and regional.
The second mission visited the Brazilian ports of Santos and Rio de Janeiro in October 1998. Between those two visits, a seminar and workshop on piracy and armed robbery against ships was conducted in Brasilia, which was attended by representatives of the Governments of Brazil, Colombia, Panama, Suriname and Venezuela and observers from Chile, Mexico, Peru and Uruguay.
The main objective of the Brasilia seminar was to improve safety at sea by assisting Governments to implement the guidelines annexed to MSC circulars 622 and 623, which were issued in 1993. It also aimed at considering the development of co-operation agreements between neighbouring countries for co-ordinated patrols and other appropriate measures.
During evaluation of the national reports on the piracy/armed robbery situation in their countries presented by the delegations attending the seminar and workshop, two important characteristic of the prevailing situation in Latin America, emerged:
• the modus operandi of pirates and armed robbers substantially differs from that in the Far East region with most of the attacks in Latin America taking place while ships are at berth or at anchor • drug-related piracy may increase in future unless a concerted effort is promptly undertaken by the countries concerned.
The seminar and workshop, whilst recognizing that, with the involvement of a considerable number of national authorities sharing responsibility on the issue, bureaucracy was inevitable, agreed that co-ordination of any activity undertaken in this respect should be vigorously sought at all levels.
MSC 71: May 1999
The MSC discussed piracy and armed robbery at its seventy-first session in May 1999, including the outcome of the two missions to South America and South East Asia. It noted that the main problems in dealing with pirates and armed robbers were:
• the economic situation prevailing in the regions concerned • resources constraints on law enforcement agencies • lack of communication and co-operation between the agencies involved • the time taken to respond after an incident has been reported • general problems in reporting incidents, such as alerting the nearest coastal State as well as other ships in the area of a ship under attack or threat of attack • timely and proper investigation of incidents • prosecution or pirates and armed robbers when apprehended • lack of regional co-operation
The Committees main conclusions were incorporated into the revised MSC Circulars 622 and 623.
Recommendations to Governments for preventing and suppressing piracy and armed robbery against ships ( MSC/Circ. 622/rev. 1)
The circular, first issued in 1993, was revised in 1999 on the basis of recommendations made by regional seminars in Brasilia, Brazil in 1998 and Singapore in 1999. The circular makes a number of recommendations:
• before embarking on any set of measures or recommendations, it is imperative for governmental or other agencies concerned to gather accurate statistics of the incidents of piracy and armed robbery against ships, to collate these statistics under both type and area and to assess the nature of the attacks with special emphasis on types of attack, accurate geographical location and modus operandi of the wrongdoers and to disseminate or publish these statistics to all interested parties in a format that is understandable and usable • representatives of shipowners and seafarers should also be involved in developing counter-measures • States should develop Action Plans on preventing and responding to attacks and also on dealing with any pollution that might result from an attack (for example, as a result of a collision or grounding) • necessary infrastructure and operational arrangements should be established to prevent and suppress piracy and armed robbery against ships • an incident command system for tactical as well as operational response should be set up and be integrated with other security matters, such as smuggling, drug trafficking and terrorism • all attacks or threats of attacks are reported to the local rescue co-ordination centre (RCC) or coast radio station. The RCC should in turn inform local security authorities and other ships in the area.
Guidance to shipowners and ship operators, shipmasters and crews on preventing and suppressing acts of piracy and armed robbery against ships (MSC/Circ.623/Rev. 1)
This circular was also first adopted in 1993 and revised in 1999. It outlines steps that should be taken to reduce the risk of such attacks, possible responses to them and the vital need to report attacks, both successful and unsuccessful, to the authorities of the relevant coastal State and to the ships' own maritime Administration.
The circular states that the main targets of the South East Asian attacker appear to be cash in the ship's safe, crew possessions and any other portable ship's equipment, even including coils of rope. In South America some piracy and armed robbery attacks are drug related. When there has been evidence of tampering with containers, it has been suggested that the raiders may initially have gained access when the ship was berthed in port and then gone over the side, with what they could carry. Thorough checking of ships' compartments and securing before leaving ports is therefore recommended.
The circular stresses the need to reduce temptation for pirates and armed robbers. The belief that large sums of cash are carried in the master's safe attracts attackers. On several occasions this belief has been justified and substantial sums have been stolen. While carrying cash may sometimes be necessary to meet operational needs and crew requirements and to overcome exchange control restrictions in some States, it acts as a magnet for attackers and they will intimidate the master or crew members until the locations have been revealed. Shipowners should consider ways of eliminating the need to carry large sums of cash on board ship. When this need arises because of exchange control restrictions imposed by States, the matter should be referred to the ship's maritime Administration to consider if representations should be made to encourage a more flexible approach as part of the international response to eliminate attacks by pirates and armed robbers.
Other provisions of the circulars are:
• masters should bear in mind the possibility that attackers are monitoring ship-to-shore communications and using intercepted information to select their targets • all ships expected to operate in waters where attacks occur should have a ship security plan, which should cover such matters as • the need for enhanced surveillance and the use of lighting, surveillance and detection equipment • crew responses, if a potential attack is detected or an attack is underway • the radio alarm procedures to be followed • the reports to be made after an attack or an attempted attack. • ship security plans should ensure that masters and crews are made fully aware of the risks involved during attacks by pirates or armed robbers • precautions must be exercised in port or at anchor, watchkeeping and vigilance, communications procedures, radio watchkeeping and responses including message formats • strongly discourages the use of firearms • outlines action to be taken if the attackers succeed in boarding the ship, action after an attack and how to report incidents.
The number of acts of piracy and armed robbery against ships reported to IMO in 1998 was 210, a decrease of 42 (17%) over the figure for 1997. Compared to 1997, the number of incidents reported to have occurred decreased from 8 to 6 in the Malacca Strait, from 101 to 94 in the South China Sea, from 45 to 38 in South America and the Caribbean, from 41 to 25 in the Indian Ocean, from 11 to 2 in the Mediterranean and Black Seas and from 30 to 22 in West Africa but increased from 11 to 19 in East Africa. However, the figure for 1999 is 235, an increase of 25 (11.9%) over the figure for 1998.
On 16 November 1999, the Alondra Rainbow incident - described at the beginning of this paper - was brought to a dramatic close off Goa, when the Indian Coast Guard succeeded in boarding the ship. They prevented attempts to scuttle her and so destroy evidence of the crime and 15 suspects were arrested. In 2001, a total of 370 incidents were reported to IMO, which showed a decrease of 21% over the 2000 figures. Apart from those reported earlier, piracy and armed robbery incidents during 2001 also occurred in the Mediterranean Sea (2), Indian Ocean (86) and East Africa (22).
More information on Piracy statistics on the IMO website.
In the wake of the tragic events of 11 September 2001 in the United States of Amercian, IMO revisited the measures it has already adopted to combat acts of violence and crime at sea.
During the 22nd Assembly of IMO from 19-30 November 2001 in London, a Conference on Maritime Security will be organized in December 2002 to adopt a new resolution to enhance ship and port security and avert shipping from becoming a target of international terrorism.
The Assembly also agreed to a significant boost to the Organizations technical co-operation programme of UK£1.5 million, to help developing countries address maritime security issues.
The new resolution calls for a review of the existing international legal and technical measures to prevent and suppress terrorist acts against ships at sea and in port and improve security aboard and ashore. The aim is to reduce risks to passengers, crews and port personnel on board ships and in port areas and to the vessels and their cargoes.
Apart from revision of practical preventative measures advocated by IMO, it is also important to ensure that criminals who have perpetrated acts of violence at sea be properly brought to trial and punished. IMOs Legal Committee, at its 83rd session (8-12 October 2001) agreed to review the Convention for the Suppression of Unlawful Acts against the Safety of Maritime Navigation, 1988 and the Protocol for the Suppression of Unlawful Acts against the Safety of Fixed Platforms Located on the Continental Shelf, 1988 (the SUA treaties) as a priority item in its work programme for 2002-2003.
Concern about unlawful acts which threaten the safety of ships and the security of their passengers and crews has been addressed by IMO since the 1980s. Pursuant to the Achille Lauro incident in 1983, IMO adopted Assembly resolution A.545(13) Measures to prevent acts of piracy and armed robbery against ships, to address the specific problems relating to piracy and armed robbery.
In 1985, IMOs 14th Assembly adopted resolution A.584 (14) on Measures to prevent unlawful acts, which threaten the safety of ships and the security of their passengers and crews. Resolution A. 584(14) notes with great concern the danger to passengers and crews resulting from the increasing number of incidents involving piracy, armed robbery and other unlawful acts against or on board ships, including small craft, both at anchor and under way.
The resolution invited the Maritime Safety Committee (MSC) to develop detailed and practical technical measures to ensure the security of passengers and crews on board ships, taking into account the work of the International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO) in the development of standards and recommended practices for airport and aircraft security.
In December 1985 the United Nations General Assembly called upon IMO to study the problem of terrorism aboard or against ships with a view to making recommendations on appropriate measures.
In September 1986, the MSC approved MSC/Circ.443 on Measures to prevent unlawful acts against passengers and crew on board ships, intended for application to passenger ships engaged on international voyages of 24 hours or more and the port facilities which service them.
The measures state that Governments, port authorities, administrations, shipowners, shipmasters and crews should take appropriate measures to prevent unlawful acts, which may threaten passengers and crews. The measures stress the need for port facilities and individual ships to have a security plan and appoint a security officer. The measures describe in detail the way in which security surveys should be conducted and the security measures and procedures, which should be adopted. Another section covers security training.
In 1996, the MSC/Circ.754 on passenger Ferry Security was approved by the MSC, which gives recommendations on security measures for international passenger ferries and ports, which is aimed at ferry journeys shorter than 24 hours.
Development of SUA convention
In November 1986 the Governments of Austria, Egypt and Italy proposed that IMO prepare a convention on the subject of unlawful acts against the safety of maritime navigation and submitted a draft proposed convention, which would aim to fill the gap in the present system regarding the suppression of such acts. The proposed convention would provide for a comprehensive suppression of unlawful acts committed against the safety of maritime navigation which endanger innocent human lives, jeopardize the safety of persons and property, seriously affect the operation of maritime services and thus are of grave concern to the international community as a whole.
As a result, in March 1988, a conference in Rome adopted the Convention for the Suppression of Unlawful Acts against the Safety of Maritime Navigation (SUA). It includes provisions for the absolute and unconditional application of the principle either to punish or to extradite persons who commit or who are alleged to have committed offences specified in the convention.
A protocol extends the provisions of the convention to unlawful acts against fixed platforms located on the Continental Shelf (Protocol for the Suppression of Unlawful Acts against the Safety of Fixed Platforms Located on the Continental Shelf, 1988). The two instruments both entered into force on 1 March 1992.
The main purpose of the SUA treaties is to ensure that appropriate action is taken against persons committing unlawful acts against ships (and fixed platforms on the continental Shelf), which include the seizure of ships by force, acts of violence against persons on board ships, and the placing of devices on board a ship which are likely to destroy or damage it. The treaties oblige Contracting Governments either to extradite or prosecute alleged offenders.
The International Maritime Bureau Piracy Reporting Centre
Indignation in the shipping industry at the alarming growth in piracy on the world's oceans prompted the creation of the International Maritime Bureau's Piracy Reporting Centre in October 1992. Located at the Bureaus Far East Regional Office in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia, the centre is financed by voluntary contributions from shipping and insurance companies, and its services are free of charge to all vessels irrespective of ownership or flag.
The centre supplies investigating teams that respond immediately to acts of piracy and collect evidence for law enforcement agencies. This service is funded by the International Transport Workers' Federation. Specific Piracy Reporting Centre tasks are to:
• report piracy incidents and armed robbery at sea to law enforcement agencies • locate vessels that have been seized by pirates and recover stolen cargoes • help to bring pirates to justice • assist owners and crews of ships that have been attacked • collate information on piracy in all parts of the world.
The IMB Piracy Centre maintains a round-the-clock watch every day of the year. In close collaboration with law enforcement, the centre acts on reports of suspicious shipping movements, piracy and armed robbery at sea anywhere in the world. The centre broadcasts daily status bulletins via satellite recording pirate attacks on shipping in the East and South East Asian region. Quarterly reports are made available to interested bodies, including IMO.
The IMB Piracy Reporting Centre is located at:
16.03A Wisma Nusantara
Jalan Punchak off Jalan P. Ramlee
50250 Kuala Lumpur
Tel. +60 3 238 5763
Fax +60 3 238 5769
Telex MA31880 IMBPCI